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Effect of Rubber Sponge Thickness in Table Tennis

What is the effect of table tennis rubber sponge thickness? What should you choose the right thickness, 2.0mm, Max thickness, 2.2 mm or 1.8 mm? Is it better to choose the thinner sponge or thicker sponge?

I will answer it right now.

The thicker the sponge, the faster rubbers

The max thickness allowed in table tennis is 4mm, here is the sponge thickness (2.2mm) and the topsheet thickness (1.8mm).

The total rubber thickness allowed in table tennis is 4mm, here is the sponge thickness (2.2mm) and the topsheet thickness (1.8mm)
The total rubber thickness allowed in table tennis is 4mm, here is the sponge thickness (2.2mm) and the topsheet thickness (1.8mm)

What is max thickness for the rubber sponge?

So, when you want to increase the sponge thickness, then the topsheet thickness will increase.

But you can’t decrease the topsheet to 0 mm. Think about it!

If the topsheet thickness decreases too much, there is no friction between the topsheet and the ball, it’s harder to generate the spin.

That’s why there is a limit of the sponge thickness. The limit thickness is 2.3mm, that’s why it is called as Max thickness (the max thickness limit in table tennis, that we can produce)

The thickness of the rubber sponge in table tennis affects the following aspects of the game:

  • Speed: Thicker sponge allows for more speed and spin in shots.
  • Control: Thinner sponge provides more control and precision, while thicker sponge provides more power.
  • Spin: Thicker sponge generates more spin.
  • Ball sensitivity: Thinner sponge is less sensitive to the ball, while thicker sponge is more sensitive (it depends also on hardness).
  • Sound: Thicker sponge produces a louder sound upon ball impact.

What Sponge Thickness Should I Choose? 1.7mm, 1.9, 2mm, or Max thickness?

In general, a thicker sponge means you can transfer more energy to the ball, and the incoming energy is also better preserved.

sponge is the energy storage - to release the ball
the sponge is the energy storage – to release the ball

I’ve heard that some coaches have suggested their new players choose a thin rubber. These coaches claim thicker sponge has less control. I don’t agree with this. I think that using too thin rubber is very dangerous for new players, for beginners.

So my answer is: Choose the thickest sponge as you can. That means, always choose the Max thickness for the modern table tennis. And the ball is bigger now, the old advice that beginners should choose 1.8mm and 2.0mm is outdated. Trust me! Read below!

Using too thin rubbers form a bad habit

In table tennis, there is some available sponge thickness for the rubber: 1.5mm, 1.8mm, 2.0mm, 2.1mm, 2.2mm, 2.3mm, or max. So which one should you choose? What is the effect of the sponge thickness on the playing style, the spin, and the speed? It’s not only the color (black or red) but also the sponge that will decide your feeling when you hit the ball.

Is using too thin rubber good for your table tennis?
Is using too thin rubber good for your table tennis?

Some players assume that a “thicker sponge is good for topspin, and a thinner sponge is good for flat hard hit”. Is this correct? Or another says: “a thinner sponge brings more feeling. And beginner should use a very thin rubber 1.8mm“. Is it good?

There is also a debate about this “A big lie about sponge hardness”. So who is right?

For my new players, I always advise them to use the thickest and the fastest rubbers possible.

I found that new players who use thin rubbers (1.5mm, 1.9mm) will improve slower than the players who use max thickness (2.2mm, 2.3mm).



Thin or Thick Rubber?

Watch video above ☝.

Bottom out effect

Because of the “bottom out” phenomenon of thin rubber. Bottom out is the phenomenon that the throw angle of the ball is very low. There is not enough sponge to absorb the energy, and the ball often goes to the net. To compensate for the “bottom out” effect, new players tend to hit upward.

too thin rubber - bottom out effect with a very low throw angle
too thin rubber – bottom out effect with a very low throw angle

Let’s watch this funny demonstration of Takkyuu Geinin.

Hit Upward is a bad habit
Hit Upward is a bad habit

Hitting upward is a very bad habit. When you hit too upward, then your shot is less consistent, and less power.


thick rubber has higher throw angle
thick rubber has a higher throw angle

Please look at how Chen Meng, Fan Zhendong perform their strokes. They always hit forward, but not upward. Hit the ball forward is the only way to make the ball more powerful.

Pro players hit forward to gain power
Pro players hit forward to gain power


Which thickness of rubber would be a good fit for a beginner

Maybe you have read on several forum, that beginner should start with 1.8mm, 2.0mm. Yes, but this approach has some disadvantages. Here is why.

A player ask “

My 9-year-old daughter is keen to learn table tennis, so I’m thinking to start off with a slight cheaply beginner setup. I’m considering using Vega Intro on a blade for beginners (have not decided yet) that is between flex and stiff in terms of elasticity.

The question is, which thickness should she start with?”


I have tested several rubbers, 1.8 mm vs 2.0mm vs Max Thickness probably won’t make much of a difference to a beginner in terms of feel or playability. It depends also on the hardness of the sponge.

sponge and topsheet thickness
sponge and topsheet thickness

In my opinion just start with max thickness and adjust later based on the need. She probably wouldn’t even notice the difference.

Ball contact on a normal inverted rubber - Max Spin and Speed
Ball contact on a normal inverted rubber – Max Spin and Speed

The advantage of using Max thickness

Trust me, I have tested on several of my junior players. All use max thickness. The ball is bigger now, so why stay with 1.8mm, and 2.0mm. It’s the old school and out-dated coaching advices.

Measuring the sponge thickness in table tennis
Measuring the sponge thickness in table tennis

By playing with the max thickness, you will transition to Max thickness later (assuming a standard double inverted play style), I don’t see a reason to start with thinner sponge.

I started with thinner sponge and had to change technique later for max sponge. Even with max sponge, you can still choose proper blade and rubber type that will allow a good beginner setup that will allow confidence in building technique and consistency.

No matter the equipment however, the most important thing is to teach good technique!

Rakza Z hard version
Rakza Z hard version

The role of the rubber’s sponge

But first of all, why we need a sponge in table tennis? What is the role of a sponge?

The sponge has 2 roles: compressor and energy storage.

Sponge thickness is the energy storage

The rubber’s sponge contributes 2 advantages in table tennis:

  • Compressor
  • Energy storage
Compressor and energy storage of the sponge
Compressor and energy storage of the sponge

For any stroke you make in table tennis, the ball must go through 3 stages:

  1. The ball sinks into the topsheet, and the pimples
  2. The ball push down the sponge (the sponge is now a compressor)
  3. The sponge springs back and releases the force (blade feeling and energy storage from the sponge)
Timo Boll testing new blade and Butterfly rubber - He always choose the Max thickness
Timo Boll testing new blade and Butterfly rubber – He always chooses the Max thickness

That’s the reason why, for the soft stroke (like service, drop shot), the topsheet will generate spin. But for the strong stroke (forehand attack, topspin), that’s the blade will generate a lot of power (due to the stiffness). Or you will feel more your blade when you do a bigger stroke.

Compressor – Never play with too thin rubber

The sponge has 2 roles: compressor and energy storage.

Some coaches didn’t understand the benefit of this “compressor”. And they always recommend a very thin rubber to a new player. Like, “Hey, if you are new to table tennis, choose only 1.5mm to 1.8mm”. They say that a thinner rubber will give you more control. This is very bad advice!

I feel sorry for this player. Why?

It’s the problem of the blade, not the rubber. If you don’t have control then you are using a too fast blade. Change the blade. Choose a slower one. But don’t reduce the rubber’s thickness. It’s very dangerous for the new players.

high reaction zone of a blade - choose a slower blade if you can't control the ball
the high reaction zone of a blade – choose a slower blade if you can’t control the ball

Please watch this video. The blade decides 80% of your playing style, the rubber decides 20%. That’s the blade that gives you the feeling, the vibration, not the rubber. Use the thickest rubber as you can. Because the rubber function is to store energy. If you don’t have enough sponge thickness, then you lack energy, power, and spin in your shots.


Because by playing with too thin rubber, a new player will form a “very bad habit” during the stroke. Thin rubber will bottom out very soon. So a new player will hit more “upward” to fight with it, to lift the ball. But this technique is very bad. In table tennis, we need to hit more forward, but not “upward”.

Use thicker sponge is better
Use thicker sponge is better

And this player never knows this feeling. The feeling that the “compressor-the sponge” will absorb the ball. With the thicker sponge, the ball will sink more. This will give the sense of “control”- of “dwell” in your big stroke. Read more about the “big lie” discussion above.

Choose the right rubber thickness is crucial in table tennis
Choose the right rubber thickness is crucial in table tennis

History of thick table tennis sponge

In my experience, max sponges give you more spin, therefore more control. The fact is thinner sponges go long more often when hit hard. Using a thinner sponge, you will have less spin, less power.

Satoh, Hiroji the first player that invented rubber sponge
Satoh, Hiroji the first player that invented the rubber sponge

Hiroji Satoh was the first player to play competitively with a sponge rubber in 1952. He won two medals in the singles and team events in the World Table Tennis Championships. And he used a 10mm thick rubber.

Hiroji thick sponge
Hiroji thick sponge

Yes, 10 mm thick rubber. In the coming years, almost all top-class players used rackets covered with a thick sponge.

Ogimura used a very thick rubber sponge
Ogimura used a very thick rubber sponge
Ogimura Jpen racket with a very thick sponge
Ogimura Jpen racket with a very thick sponge

But 10mm thick is too much. The International Table Tennis Federation has allowed the total thickness is 4mm. Thick total thickness is the sum of the topsheet and the sponge. The topsheet thickness is about 1.8mm, so the maximum sponge thickness is about 2.2 – 2.3 mm.

The max thickness allowed in table tennis is 4mm, here is the sponge thickness (2.2mm) and the topsheet thickness (1.8mm)
The max thickness allowed in table tennis is 4mm, here is the sponge thickness (2.2mm) and the topsheet thickness (1.8mm)

Energy storage – It’s all about the hitting power

The second role of the sponge is energy storage.

Imagine there are 2 extreme cases:

If you use a very thin sponge, thin like paper. What happens? In every shot, the ball will hit directly to the blade. It will bottom out in every shot. The throw angle is very small. And there is no energy stored.

Rubber Thickness Measurement
Rubber Thickness Measurement

If you use a very thick sponge. There is a lot of thickness for compression. The energy is stored, and you can hit it very hard without bottom out the sponge. But the final phase “sponge springs back and releases the force” is not fast. Because the blade won’t participate in your shot. You just play with the sponge. Which is not good for your feeling. Also, the too thick sponge would be too heavy rubber to play with.

So if you can hit hard, choose a thicker sponge from 2.1 mm to MAX thickness. That’s why top players always play with MAX thickness. Because they are trained to hit hard in every shot.

The first advertiser for Japanese company who make sponge racket
The first advertiser for Japanese company who make sponge racket

Control and Dwell-time

So what is control here? Why many new players say that “this rubber is too fast, I can’t control it.” And right away, his coach says “choose a thinner rubber. Or a softer rubber”. This is a very bad choice! Why?

It’s not a rubber which is too fast. But it’s the blade! Many coaches and players didn’t realize this. That is the blade is too stiff, and that the player doesn’t get any “feeling” from the blade. You need a good dwell time to feel the ball.

Choose the fast rubber. Control and dwell time depends mostly on the blade
Choose the fast rubber. Control and dwell time depends mostly on the blade

So what is the difference in terms of control when you change from 2.0mm to 2.2mm? Watch this video, you will understand:

Part 2 of 3: 2.2mm vs 2.0mm TT sponge thickness - Robot testing: throw height, trajectory & speed

Watch video above ☝.


Speed and Spin – Chinese Secret

For any thickness and hardness of the sponge, there’s some maximum amount of energy it can store during compression. If you hit hard, and you pass this limit, then the “bottom out” will happen. You should avoid the “bottom out” effect. you’re going to lose energy on the shot.

This is the main reason why professional players play with Max thickness sponge.

The feeling of Hurricane 3 2.15mm is totally different from Hurricane 3 2.2 mm (especially when using with booster).

Thickness has a limit, due to the rule. (4 mm).

Increase hardness. That’s why the top Chinese player plays with hard to very hard rubber. To increase the limit of Energy storage, to remove the bottom out effect, and to increase the spin and speed.

Chinese players prefer using 2.15mm instead of Max on Forehand in order to use the booster
Chinese players prefer using 2.15mm instead of Max on Forehand in order to use the booster


Sponge Thickness vs. Speed

As you know that sponge thickness is measured in mm. And thicker sponge can store a higher amount of Energy (or catapult effect). While control also depends on the blade, the catapult speed depends mostly on the sponge thickness.

Thicker sponge gives you more speed if you hit harder
Thicker sponge gives you more speed if you hit harder

So if you hit harder, play quicker, you should choose thicker sponges. In general, here is the guideline to choose sponge thickness which depends on your playing style:

Sponge ThicknessRubber Rebound SpeedPlaying Style
OX - 1.4mmSLOWDefence
1.5mm - 1.9.mmMEDIUMAllround
2.0mm - 2.2mmFASTTopspin Attack
2.3mm - MAXVERY FASTPower Attack

Thickness for Chinese rubbers

The best thickness to choose for hard and tacky Chinese rubbers (like DHS Hurricane 3) is 2.15 mm (if you use Booster), and 2.20 mm (if you don’t use Booster).

This is the boosted Hurricane 3 rubber. And this is the unboosted one. But today, we won’t talk about the boosted Chinese rubber. We talk about how to choose the right rubber thickness in table tennis.

Boosted Hurricane 3 vs Unboosted Hurricane 3
Boosted Hurricane 3 vs Unboosted Hurricane 3

Conclusion – Best sponge thickness

Here is my final advice:

Choose the thickest and fastest rubber you can. By forcing using this setup, you will need to improve your power. It’s better for your development.

It depends on your hitting power. But don’t choose too thin rubber, or too soft rubber, even you are a new player. Don’t choose rubber that is thinner than 2.0 mm.

For the backhand side, choose something between 2.0 mm (new player) to 2.2, or Max (intermediate player).

For the forehand side, choose 2.1 mm or Max. For the Chinese rubber, you need to tune, so choose 2.1 to 2.15 mm. Don’t select a max thickness for Chinese rubber. Because boosting a Max thickness, the total thickness will higher than 4.0mm (which is illegal). The sponge absorbs the booster and expand. I’ve explained how to boost Chinese forehand rubber here.

To improve fast, you need to train like a pro, with similar types of equipment of the advanced players.

Please comment below,

What is the rubber thickness that you are using?

Read more:

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Table tennis coach in France since 2012, founder of pingsunday.com (the best online coaching program for table tennis players). Born in Vietnam in 1983, Ph.D. in Université Pierre Marie Curie. Read more about him.

22 thoughts on “Effect of Rubber Sponge Thickness in Table Tennis”

  1. There is some confusion in this article. First of all, commercial sponges are available in thickness way below 1.5 mm. The thinnest I’ve seen is 0.5.
    Second, energy is stored in several ways: ball compression (mainly for hard-rubber, however, but not exclusively), sponge compression, and sponge tension. The latter comes mainly into play in counterlooping and counter-pushing, where the blade (/rubber) angle is quite acute to the trajectory of a spinning ball.

    For players who are very much dependent on overpowering a topspin attacker with superior topspin prowess–say Ma Long vs Hugo Calderano–then the compression storage is secondary to the tension-storage: both the topsheet, the pimples, and the underlying sponge are cooperating synergistically to store energy from both the ball’s linear and angular momenta. The system isn’t compressed so much as it is stretched, like a rubber band, and you snth can gain an understanding of this arrangement by a simple experiment. Wrap a rubber-band around a ping-pong ball under tension one loop and hold the rest of the length of the rubber-band under tension.

    Now let go of the ball. It will both shoot away fast, and also spin. But there is no compression of the rubber at all. Now, in a real situation, no rubber is being ‘wrapped’ around the ball, but the incoming topspin is driving the top of the ball into the tacky rubber and the rubber is gripping it hard. The ball continues driving into the rubber —at a severe angle. Through a small amount of compression and a lot of tension, the ball eventually loses all of its linear and angular energy to potential energy of stretched-out topsheet, the topsheet pimples, and the sponge.

    For a few milliseconds, the ball is stationary, and the the reverse process transpires, and the counter-topspin is produced.

    So, the reason for the sponge thickness is not so it can be pushed down for further compression storage, but so it can be stretched-back further, for tension storage, and this is why speed-gluing was so effective: the tiny solvent molecules got in between the elastomer chains of the rubber (including the pimples a bit. This sort of lubricates/separates the chains of rubber molecules so they can stretch further and more easily and with less energy loss on stretching and recoil (hysteresis-loss). This, then, is the famous ‘tensor-rubber’ effect: tension.

    But there is a price to pay for this system: it doesn’t have a very sensitive feel in play. So Waldner didn’t use thick sponge. He preferred 1.5 mm sponge. This gave him that great touch and control: he could feel the ball-impact better.

    I’m in agreement with those who think 1.5 is a better choice for beginner’s but not for the same reasons. 1.5 mm is good training to develop your touch and feel game. It will not help your touch and feel for a massive counter-looping game however. If you try to beat a big looping specialist who uses Tenergy 05 2.1 mm, you will lose more counterlooping rallies than you will win. But if you start, as a beginner, with a thick fast tensor against a seasoned counterlooper, you will lose anyway, and even worse.

    But here’s the thing; if you start with 1.5 (and I could even argue for 1.0 mm) and play for a year all the basic push, drive, open against backspin, block, chop, flicks, flips, punches, bananas, strawberries, serves, counterdrive, chop-block, junk-shot, snake, angle-shots, depth-control, you will be constantly getting feed-back from your raquet as to what’s going on with all these shots, their personalities, quirks, vibes, and the like.

    This feedback will be attenuated when you switch in a year or two to a 2.0 tensor, but you will still have a lot more sense of what they are than if you had started ‘looking’ (with your hand and fingers) through a smokey glass. They will be weakened to your touch, but you will still recognize them as old friends.

  2. Hi i want to buy rakza 7 for FH and BH for my Yinhe V14Pro blade, may I know what thickness should i go for: 1.8, 2, 2.2. I’m not a pro but not a beginner either, maybe somewhere lower than intermediate alittle bit

    • 0.05 mm difference is barely above the +/- tolerance variability of rubbers available to the general public, and utterly trivial to players who are not in the worlds top-20.

  3. I fully agree here and I have adhered to these rules for my kids after listening to nonsense talk from sellers and coaches too long.definitely the way to go.

  4. Thank you coach for your great work as always. I have only one question about the Tenergy 5 hard rubber ( the new one ) should we use the maximum sponge thickness too or apply the same rule of thickness of Chinese rubber as you explained above to leave room for boosting ?
    Thanks again for your help coach.


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